This specimen, when mounted, stood 3.39 m (11 ft 1 in) tall on its hindlegs. Size: 8.2 feet (2.5 m) long; Weight: 1,499 pounds (680 kg). Think about that. [162], Polar bears were designated "Not at Risk" in April 1986 and uplisted to "Special Concern" in April 1991. [73], Mature bears tend to eat only the calorie-rich skin and blubber of the seal, which are highly digestible,[92] whereas younger bears consume the protein-rich red meat. [36][48] The polar bear tends to frequent areas where sea ice meets water, such as polynyas and leads (temporary stretches of open water in Arctic ice), to hunt the seals that make up most of its diet. Polar Bear Brown Bear; Average Weight of Mature Male: 900-1,500 pounds: 500-900 pounds: Heaviest Recorded: 2,210 pounds: 2,500+ pounds: Average Length of Mature Male That same 1000lb polar bear now weighs 1200lbs. The average polar bear studied weighed about 386 pounds (175 kilograms). Male polar bears average nearly 900 pounds in weight, with one weighing in at 1,760 pounds; by comparison, the average brown bear weighs in at 600 pounds. However, in 2006 it imposed a limit of 150, while also allowed recreational hunting for the first time. [29] Polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids;[4][30] rather than indicating that they have only recently diverged, the new evidence suggests more frequent mating has continued over a longer period of time, and thus the two bears remain genetically similar. Polar bears can weigh up to 750-kilograms (1,550 pounds) and can stand up to 3-metres (10-feet) tall. Their scientific name means "maritime bear" and derives from this fact. Thus, now the Alaskan population more resembles the world population in that it is more likely to den on land. When walking, the polar bear tends to have a lumbering gait and maintains an average speed of around 5.6 km/h (3.5 mph). [31] As predicted by Allen's rule for a northerly animal, the legs are stocky and the ears and tail are small. The average weight of a female polar bear in pounds is about 573 pounds. The average weight of a female polar bear is usually between 150-250 kg. [169] In 2010, the 2005 increase was partially reversed. Females are about half the size of male s and normally weigh 200 to 300 kilograms (440 to 660 pounds). Polar bears are called Nanuuq by Eskimos. If polar bears are known for their strength, how would they fare against another beast known for terrifying power, the silverback gorilla? [31] However, the feet are very large to distribute load when walking on snow or thin ice and to provide propulsion when swimming; they may measure 30 cm (12 in) across in an adult. The largest polar bear recorded weighed 2,209 pounds (1,000 kg), according to Polar Bear International. They can be 7.25 to 8 ft tall. Female polar bears are referred to as sows. Adult males weigh from 400 to 600 kilograms (880 to 1,320 pounds) and occasionally exceed 800 kilograms (1,760 pounds). [22] Fossils show that between 10,000 and 20,000 years ago, the polar bear's molar teeth changed significantly from those of the brown bear. When they write about the polar bear they call it, Pihoqahiak, meaning the ever-wandering one. [26] A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged approximately 603,000 years ago,[27] although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes (rather than just the mitochondria or partial nuclear genomes) of polar and brown bears, and establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago. A polar bear’s stomach can hold up to 20% of its own mass. Polar Bear Fast Facts. [46] However, it is the only living marine mammal with powerful, large limbs and feet that allow them to cover kilometres on foot and run on land. [212] Only once the spirit was appeased was the skull be separated from the skin, taken beyond the bounds of the homestead, and placed in the ground, facing north. [89], With the exception of pregnant females, polar bears are active year-round, although they have a vestigial hibernation induction trigger in their blood. [70], The polar bear is an excellent swimmer and often will swim for days. [84], In 1992, a photographer near Churchill took a now widely circulated set of photographs of a polar bear playing with a Canadian Eskimo Dog (Canis lupus familiaris) a tenth of its size. [60] The pads of the paws are covered with small, soft papillae (dermal bumps), which provide traction on the ice. [43], In August 2011, Environment Canada published a national polar bear conservation strategy. pp. In the Beaufort Sea, males average 450 kg (992 lb) on maturity. Since an attack on a walrus tends to be an extremely protracted and exhausting venture, bears have been known to back down from the attack after making the initial injury to the walrus. A grizzly–polar bear hybrid (known either as a pizzly bear or a grolar bear) is a rare ursid hybrid resulting from a crossbreeding of a brown bear and a polar bear.It has occurred both in captivity and in the wild. This hibernation-like state does not consist of continuous sleeping; however, the bear's heart rate slows from 46 to 27 beats per minute. While both sexes look alike, males are about twice the size of females. [161] This decision was approved of by members of the IUCN and TRAFFIC, who determined that such an uplisting was unlikely to confer a conservation benefit. Polar bear milk is the fattiest found on land, at about 31 percent fat when the cubs are born. [109] Here, their food ecology shows their dietary flexibility. [201], Warnings about the future of the polar bear are often contrasted with the fact that worldwide population estimates have increased over the past 50 years and are relatively stable today. In some areas, the polar bear's diet is supplemented by walrus calves and by the carcasses of dead adult walruses or whales, whose blubber is readily devoured even when rotten. According to a study, 20000 polar bears can eat 128469 seals annually each weigh 121 pounds. They may also eat plants, including berries, roots, and kelp;[109] however, none of these have been a significant part of their diet,[100] except for beachcast marine mammal carcasses. Their concentrations in polar bear tissues continued to rise for decades after being banned, as these chemicals spread through the food chain. [224] The television series Lost features polar bears living on the tropical island setting. Subadults may also be forced to accept a half-eaten carcass if they kill a seal but cannot defend it from larger polar bears. The largest male polar bear on record weighed 2209 pounds. Ursus labradorensis During the swim, the bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub died. sergei gladyshev / Getty Images. Polar bears consume a wide variety of other wild foods, including muskox (Ovibos moschatus), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), birds, eggs, rodents, crabs, other crustaceans, fish[108] and other polar bears. They are adults by this time and weigh 330 to 660 pounds (150 to 300 kilograms). A polar bear can eat 100 pounds of blubber in a single sitting. [74], Unlike brown bears, polar bears are not territorial. Seal meat, the polar bear snack of choice, has a very high fat content. [90], Problematic interactions between polar bears and humans, such as foraging by bears in garbage dumps, have historically been more prevalent in years when ice-floe breakup occurred early and local polar bears were relatively thin. When the cubs reach 90 – 100 days age they leave the den. [2], There are several reasons for the apparent discordance between past and projected population trends: estimates from the 1950s and 1960s were based on stories from explorers and hunters rather than on scientific surveys. Polar bears are extremely large animals. The average polar bear weight ranges from 849 to 904 lbs i.e. ", "Ecological risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic", "Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in polar bears (, "Rebuttal of "Polar Bear Population Forecasts: A Public-Policy Forecasting Audit, "The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears", "Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities? 340 to 658 kg. Only with the passage of the treaty did they begin to recover. [213] Vehicle licence plates in the Northwest Territories in Canada are in the shape of a polar bear, as was the case in Nunavut until 2012; these now display polar bear artwork instead. The Inuit peoples have great respect for this bear. [118] Polar bears have a generally polygynous mating system; recent genetic testing of mothers and cubs, however, has uncovered cases of litters in which cubs have different fathers. [126][127] As of 2006, in Alaska, 42% of cubs were reaching 12 months of age, down from 65% in 1991. [139][140] The remains of polar bears have found in the stomachs of large Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus), although it certainly cannot be ruled out that the bears were merely scavenged by this slow-moving, unusual shark. In addition, the Polar Bear has a much better visionary, auditory as well as olfactory senses than the African Lion. [90] Insufficient nourishment leads to lower reproductive rates in adult females and lower survival rates in cubs and juvenile bears, in addition to poorer body condition in bears of all ages. [36][183][184][185][186][187], The key danger posed by climate change is malnutrition or starvation due to habitat loss. Polar bears are the largest land predators on the planet. Their southernmost range is near the boundary between the subarctic and humid continental climate zones. [167] In two areas where harvest levels have been increased based on increased sightings, science-based studies have indicated declining populations, and a third area is considered data-deficient. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The family remains in the den until mid-February to mid-April, with the mother maintaining her fast while nursing her cubs on a fat-rich milk. [188], A new development is that polar bears have begun ranging to new territory. A healthy weight for polar bear will be around 1 ton= 1,000 pounds to 2 ton 2,000 lbs, but right now they are facing weather changing. [220] The animated television series Noah's Island features a polar bear named Noah as the protagonist. This cave is called a maternity den.A female polar bear typically gives birth to twins, though singles and triplets have been recorded. Polar bears are so strong that they have been known to kill many animals with a signal paw swipe. The weight of an adult female polar bear is recorded somewhere between 150 to 250 kg. Ursus marinus Ten of the sows had a cub swim with them and after a year, six cubs survived. [166], The territory of Nunavut accounts for the location 80% of annual kills in Canada. This kind of social interaction is uncommon; it is far more typical for polar bears to behave aggressively towards dogs. Ringed seals are born weighing 5.4 kg (12 lb) and grown to an estimated average weight of only 60 kg (130 lb). In unusually warm conditions, the hollow tubes provide an excellent home for algae. But first I’m going to give some stats to show how the two measure up against each other. They can do this remarkably quickly too. [52] Adult male polar bears weigh 350–700 kg (770–1,500 lb) and measure 2.4–3 metres (7 ft 10 in–9 ft 10 in) in total length. [2] Because polar bears rely partly on their fur for insulation and soiling of the fur by oil reduces its insulative value, oil spills put bears at risk of dying from hypothermia. After feeding, polar bears wash themselves with water or snow. Other names they are known by include ice bear and isbj. Clyde, a Kodiak brown bear, weighed 2,130 pounds at the time of his death in 1987 at the Dakota Zoo in Bismarck, N.D. The average polar bear studied weighed about 386 pounds. Polar bear adults. [194] Halocarbons (also known as organohalogens) are known to be toxic to other animals, because they mimic hormone chemistry, and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears. Female polar bears are referred to as sows. Polar Bear Brown Bear; Average Weight of Mature Male: 900-1,500 pounds: 500-900 pounds: Heaviest Recorded: 2,210 pounds: 2,500+ pounds: Average Length of Mature Male: 8-8.4 feet >7-10 feet Rising temperatures cause the sea ice to melt earlier in the year, driving the bears to shore before they have built sufficient fat reserves to survive the period of scarce food in the late summer and early fall. 450 kg. [118] In most subpopulations, maternity dens are situated on land a few kilometres from the coast, and the individuals in a subpopulation tend to reuse the same denning areas each year. While the algae is harmless to the bears, it is often a worry to the zoos housing them, and affected animals are sometimes washed in a salt solution, or mild. What the scientists found is that five of the bears lost weight and four of them lost 2.9 to 5.5 pounds (1.3 to 2.5 kilograms) per day. [36] Disease-causing bacteria and parasites would flourish more readily in a warmer climate. (0.8% in the 1970s, 7.1% in the 1980s, and 14.6% in the 1990s)[165] Nunavut polar bear biologist, Mitchell Taylor, who was formerly responsible for polar bear conservation in the territory, has insisted that bear numbers are being sustained under current hunting limits. On 15 May 2008, the United States Department of the Interior listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, citing the melting of Arctic sea ice as the primary threat to the polar bear. Canada began imposing hunting quotas in 1968. At this time they weigh up to 33 pounds (115 kg). For example, The Polar Bear Son is adapted from a traditional Inuit tale. Polar bear adults. Polar bears feature prominently in East (North Child in the UK) by Edith Pattou,[221] The Bear by Raymond Briggs (adapted into an animated short in 1998),[222] and Chris d'Lacey's The Fire Within series. [12] It is sometimes referred to as the "nanook", based on the Inuit term nanuq.[13]. [96] The bearded seal, on the other hand, can be nearly the same size as the bear itself, averaging 270 kg (600 lb). [39] Until 2005 Greenland placed no limit on hunting by indigenous people. Under those restrictions, permits from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service were required to import sport-hunted polar bear trophies taken in hunting expeditions in Canada. The Soviet Union banned all hunting in 1956. When a family finally heads toward the sea ice in the early spring, cubs can already be 15-30 pounds at just two to three months old. [176], The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 afforded polar bears some protection in the United States. [32] This distinction has since been invalidated. Females are about half the size of male s and normally weigh 200 to 300 kilograms (440 to 660 pounds). [39], Polar bears were hunted heavily in Svalbard, Norway throughout the 19th century and to as recently as 1973, when the conservation treaty was signed. The largest bear in the world and the Arctic's top predator, polar bears are a powerful symbol of the strength and endurance of the Arctic. [149], Their distinctive appearance and their association with the Arctic have made polar bears popular icons, especially in those areas where they are native. Ursus groenlandicus After killing the animal, its head and skin were removed and cleaned and brought into the home, and a feast was held in the hunting camp in its honor. 2. [149] Only the liver was not used, as its high concentration of vitamin A is poisonous. An adult male ranges from 7.9 to 9.8 feet in length and weighs 770 to 1500 pounds. In Nunavut, some Inuit have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements in recent years, leading to a belief that populations are increasing. Although stereotyped as being voraciously aggressive, they are normally cautious in confrontations, and often choose to escape rather than fight. [4] However, recent reanalysis of the fossil suggests that it was actually a brown bear. The weight of an adult female is one half of the male’s body mass. (2011). [131] Polar bears are especially susceptible to Trichinella, a parasitic roundworm they contract through cannibalism,[132] although infections are usually not fatal. [155], Concerns over the future survival of the species led to the development of national regulations on polar bear hunting, beginning in the mid-1950s. If a sport hunter does not kill a polar bear before his or her permit expires, the permit cannot be transferred to another hunter. It banned hunting (except by indigenous subsistence hunters), banned importing of polar bear parts (except polar bear pelts taken legally in Canada), and banned the harassment of polar bears. Fish and Wildlife Service published a draft conservation management plan for polar bears to improve their status under the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The heaviest male polar bear on record weighed 2209 pounds (1002 kgs). [163], More than 600 bears are killed per year by humans across Canada,[45] a rate calculated by scientists to be unsustainable for some areas, notably Baffin Bay. [148][149] Polar bear remains have been found at hunting sites dating to 2,500 to 3,000 years ago[151] and 1,500-year-old cave paintings of polar bears have been found in the Chukchi Peninsula. At up to 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) and a typical adult mass range of 600 to 1,500 kg (1,300 to 3,300 lb), a walrus can be more than twice the bear's weight,[100] has extremely thick skin and has up to 1-metre (3 ft)-long ivory tusks that can be used as formidable weapons. Because of their dependence on the sea ice, polar bears are classified as marine mammals. Whereas northern communities kill all the polar bears they are permitted to take each year, only half of sport hunters with permits actually manage to kill a polar bear. [192] This may cause an increased reliance on terrestrial diets, such as goose eggs, waterfowl and caribou,[193] as well as increased human–bear conflict. Males attain this much weight when they are 10 years of age. Polar bears are popular in fiction, particularly in books for children or teenagers. Polar bear’s scientific name, Ursus maritimus, means “sea bear” in Latin. The largest polar bear in history hit the scales at whopping 2,209 pounds (157.7 stone, 1,001kg) back in 1960, so Fat Albert still has a way to go yet. For about 12 to 15 days, the family spends time outside the den while remaining in its vicinity, the mother grazing on vegetation while the cubs become used to walking and playing. [90], The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting:[91] the bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear. When it comes to bite force, Polar Bears take the lead again. Weight depends upon age, sex, season, food, and genetics. [121] Her body temperature does not decrease during this period as it would for a typical mammal in hibernation. [31] The claws are deeply scooped on the underside to assist in digging in the ice of the natural habitat. They are starting to weight … It was believed that the "little nephew" (the brown bear) would not dare to attack a man wearing the tooth of its powerful "big uncle", the polar bear. Most polar bears elsewhere will never have access to these alternatives, except for the marine mammal carcasses that are important wherever they occur. [31], When the polar bear was originally documented, two subspecies were identified: the American polar bear (Ursus maritimus maritimus) by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, and the Siberian polar bear (Ursus maritimus marinus) by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776. Number of Claws, How to Draw a Polar Bear for Kids – Super Simple Steps, Images, Videos, Is a Polar Bear Bigger than a Grizzly Bear? Polar bears are called Nanuuq by Eskimos. [149], The Nenets of north-central Siberia placed particular value on the talismanic power of the prominent canine teeth. [78] Many attacks by brown bears are the result of surprising the animal, which is not the case with the polar bear. The melting sea ice in the Arctic may be causing an increase of orcas in the Arctic sea, which may increase the risk of predation on polar bears but also may benefit the bears by providing more whale carcasses that they can scavenge. Hunters commonly used teams of dogs to distract the bear, allowing the hunter to spear the bear or shoot it with arrows at closer range. Females communicate with their young with moans and chuffs, and the distress calls of both cubs and subadults consists of bleats. [87] A third hunting method is to raid the birth lairs that female seals create in the snow. 1987. Polar bear cubs weigh less than a kilogram but male cubs are greater than female cubs even at birth. One bear lost 51 pounds in just nine days. Polar bears are excellent swimmers. Unlike brown and black bears, polar bears are capable of fasting for up to several months during late summer and early fall, when they cannot hunt for seals because the sea is unfrozen. Polar bear fieldwork can also be hazardous to researchers. The Canadian two-dollar coin carries an image of a lone polar bear on its reverse side, while a special millennium edition featured three. [93] For subadult bears, which are independent of their mother but have not yet gained enough experience and body size to successfully hunt seals, scavenging the carcasses from other bears' kills is an important source of nutrition. It is called, Nanuk. Adult males weigh between 350 to 680 kilograms (770 to 1500 pounds). The heaviest male polar bear ever recorded was 1,002 kg (2,209 lb). [11] For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material, spiritual, and cultural life of circumpolar peoples, and polar bears remain important in their cultures. Their diet consists primarily of seals but they will also eat Beluga Whales, Walrus, Fish, Narwhal, Reindeer, seabirds, and carrion. A polar bear can live up to 25 years, with wild bears reaching a record of 32 years and some in captivity reaching 43 years of age. [90] The evolutionary pressure of polar bear predation on seals probably accounts for some significant differences between Arctic and Antarctic seals. "The influence of climate variability on polar bear (, "Diet composition of polar bears in Svalbard and the western Barents Sea",, "Interactions between polar bears and overwintering walruses in the Central Canadian High Arctic", "Polar bear metabolism cannot cope with ice loss", "Comments on 'Carnivorous walrus and some Arctic zoonoses, "Hudson Bay Post — Goodbye Churchil [sic] Dump", "What to eat now? Now let us study how much do polar bears weigh? Polar bear. [94][95] They also in places prey heavily upon the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina), or the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata). [56] The largest polar bear on record, reportedly weighing 1,002 kg (2,209 lb), was a male shot at Kotzebue Sound in northwestern Alaska in 1960. Only one case of a polar bear with rabies has been documented, even though polar bears frequently interact with Arctic foxes, which often carry rabies. During these four months, the pregnant female eats prodigious amounts of food, gaining at least 200 kg (440 lb) and often more than doubling her body weight. [99] Polar bears have also been seen to prey on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas)[95] and narwhals (Monodon monoceros),[95] by swiping at them at breathing holes. [62][152] However, since polar bear fur has always played a marginal commercial role, data on the historical harvest is fragmentary. The polar bear's claws are short and stocky compared to those of the brown bear, perhaps to serve the former's need to grip heavy prey and ice. Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay", "Predation of Svalbard reindeer by polar bears", "White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears", "Rejected by their mother, polar cubs now under intensive care at Toronto Zoo", "Two cubs die as mother polar bear turns on her three newborns | National Post", "Infanticide and Cannibalism of Juvenile Polar Bears (, "Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in Western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change", Polar bears, grizzlies increasingly gather on North Slope, "ABC News: Grizzlies encroaching on polar bear Country", "Clash of the fiercest predators as shark eats polar bear", "Polar bears can swim vast distances, study finds", "The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver", "U.S. and Russia sign pact to protect the polar bear", "Circumpolar Action Plan: Conservation Strategy for Polar Bears", "Did Polar Bears Really Lose at CITES? 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In Greenland, hunting restrictions were first introduced in 1994 and expanded by executive order 2005. Females in Western Hudson Bay was 650 pounds ) then proceeded to cache the carcasses, which increase length... 87 ] Studies have also seen polar bear cubs are born at 2! After their long swims effectively, leading to starvation during, or abandon her den prematurely, or unable. 11 ft 1 in ) tall most bears weigh less than a kilogram but male are! Fats in order to spend days in the wild, old polar bears eventually become too weak to food! This, the evidence from DNA analysis is more likely to den on land, they spend most of year! Unusual in that its female polar bears can swim 10 km/h ( mph! Is important as an indicator of Arctic mites such as elephant seals males weigh!